Terpenes and cannabinoids are the primary compounds responsible for the medical benefits and effects experienced with different strains and products.
Terpenes are the fragrant oils secreted in cannabis trichomes and offer users a variety of different medical benefits. As Leafly describes, terpenes have unique attributes that contribute to the overall composition of a strain, adding a dimension to each one's "personality."
Dispensaries and cultivators are beginning to move away from labelling cannabis strictly under indica, sativa, or hybrid, as it is ultimately the combination of terpenes and cannabinoids present in a cannabis strain that will elicit certain medical effects and benefits. You can use this terpene guide to better understand the terpene profiles you should be looking out for when you visit an Ohio dispensary!
Most are intimately familiar with this terpene, although they may not know it: Pinene is responsible for cannabis that smells like fresh pine trees! Pinene can also be found in conifer trees, orange peels, turpentine, pine needles, rosemary, dill, basil, and parsley. In fact, pinene is the most abundant terpene in the plant kingdom!
Studies so far have suggest that pinene has the following properties: analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antiseptic, bronchodilator (helps open airway), antibacterial, anti-proliferative, may combat short-term memory impairment associated with THC, and - if that wasn't enough - is also an antioxidant!
Pinene is most often utilized for treatment of asthma, pain, inflammation, ulcers, anxiety, and cancer, among others still being studied. Popular strains that are high in pinene include Jack Herer, Blue Dream, and OG Kush!
Limonene usually occurs in trace amounts, generally between 1-2%. In isolation, this terpene is commonly associated with fruity, citrus aromas! Limonene can also be found in many everyday items like fruit rinds, cosmetics, and cleaning products, in addition to rosemary, juniper and peppermint.
Studies so far have suggest that Limonene has the following properties: elevated mood, stress relief, antifungal properties, antibacterial properties, may help relieve heartburn and gastric reflux, and even improves absorption of other terpenes and chemical by the way of the skin, mucous membranes, and digestive tract. There is also promising efforts for Limonene's anti-tumor effects.
Limonene is most often utilized for treatment of anxiety, depression, inflammation, pain, and cancer; inhalation of Limonene vapor increases serotonin and dopamine levels in key regions of the brain.
Myrcene has been known to compose up to 50% of the total terpene content found in individual strains! In isolation, this terpene is commonly described as displaying an earthy smell, featuring musky notes likened strongly to cloves.
Studies so far have suggested that Myrcene has the following properties: anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antibiotic, antimutagenic, and displays sedative effects. There are promising efforts for Myrcene's anti-tumor effects, with therapeutic potential in cancer treatment.
Myrcene is most often utilized for treatment of insomnia, chronic pain, inflammation, and even works as an antioxidant.
Beta-caryophyllene is a common and often abundant terpene found in cannabis. Over the last decade, β-caryophyllene gas gained the attention of scientists when i was discovered to be one of the first non-cannabinoids to directly activate cannabinoid receptors - more specifically the CB2 receptors!
In isolation, this terpene is commonly described as displaying a distinct peppery smell, and can be found in high amounts in cloves, hops, and rosemary.
Studies so far have suggested that Beta-caryophyllene has the following properties: anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and protects cells lining the digestive tract.
Beta-caryophyllene is most often utilized for treatment of chronic pain, anxiety, depression, brain aging (Alzheimer's Disease), and ulcers.
In isolation this terpene is more multidimensional than other terpenes, commonly described as displaying a piney, floral, herbaceous, and even a little citrusy aroma.
Studies so far have suggested that Terpinolene has the following properties: antioxidant, sedative, antibacterial, antifungal and anticancer. There are promising efforts for Terpinolene's sedative and calming effects, in addition to the potential to reduce the risk of heart disease and inhibiting the growth of cancer cells.
Terpinolene's mild yet effective depressant action on the central nervous system means it can be used for insomnia treatment in addition to psychological excitement and anxiety.
This terpene is found in lavender and is mildly psychoactive! Linalool occurs naturally and is associated with calming and anti-anxiety effects. Evidence also shows Linalool to act as a potent sedative, analgesic, and anesthetic.
High-linalool strains are very rare; one of them being Bubba Kush.
In isolation this terpene is commonly described as displaying sweet and herbaceous aroma with citrusy and woody undertones.
Studies so far have suggested that Ocimene has the following properties: antiviral, antifungal, antiseptic, decongestant, and antibacterial. There are promising efforts for Ocimene's potential to suppress the production of several different inflammatory substances emitted by the immune system.
In isolation this terpene is commonly described with a distinct spicy, herbaceous, and subtly floral bouquet of aromas.
Studies so far have suggested that Humulene has the following properties: anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, and appetite suppressant.
There are promising efforts for Humulene's potential to help terminate cancer cells when combined with cannabinoids and other terpenes, believed to be an active mechanism in fighting tumors. In another study, Humulene was found to exhibit antibacterial properties. Humulene also plays a role in pharmacokinetics, showing potential to be distributed rapidly throughout the body via both oral and topical absorption.